Sex differences in neuroimmunoendocrine communication. Involvement on longevity
Endocrine, nervous, and immune systems work coordinately to maintain the global homeostasis of the organism. They show sex differences in their functions that, in turn, contribute to sex differences beyond reproductive function. Females display a better control of the energetic metabolism and improved neuroprotection and have more antioxidant defenses and a better inflammatory status than males, which is associated with a more robust immune response than that of males. These differences are present from the early stages of life, being more relevant in adulthood and influencing the aging trajectory in each sex and may contribute to the different life lifespan between sexes.