Dietary inflammatory index and cardiovascular disease risk in Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative
Background: To evaluate the association between the dietary inflammatory index (DII®) and incident cardiovascular disease (CVD) in Hispanic women from the Women's Health Initiative (WHI), and to determine if body mass index (BMI) interacted with the DII scores.
Methods: Secondary analysis of baseline dietary data and long-term CVD outcomes among 3,469 postmenopausal women who self-identified as Hispanic enrolled in WHI. DII scores were calculated from self-administered food frequency questionnaires. The CVD outcomes included coronary heart disease (CHD) and stroke. Stratified Cox regression models were used to assess the relationship between DII scores and CVD in women with and without obesity. Models were adjusted for age, lifestyle risk factors, known risk factors, and neighborhood socioeconomic status.
Results: The incidence of CHD was 3.4 and 2.8% for stroke after a median follow-up of 12.9 years. None of the DIIs were associated with CVD risk in this sample of Hispanic women. BMI interacted with the DII (p < 0.20) and stratified models showed that the associations between the DII and CVD were only significant in women with overweight (p < 0.05). In this group, higher DII scores were associated with a higher risk of CHD (HR 1.27; 95% CI: 1.08, 1.51) and a higher risk of stroke (HR 1.32; 95% CI: 1.07, 1.64).
Conclusion: Among postmenopausal Hispanic women with overweight, greater adherence to pro-inflammatory diets was associated with higher risk of CVD. Additional research is needed to understand how to promote long-term heart-healthy dietary habits to reduce inflammation and prevent CVD in at-risk Hispanic women.