Association of Electronic Cigarette Exposure on Cardiovascular Health: A Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis
Curr Probl Cardiol. Tariq Jamal Siddiqi et al.
Despite the growing use of electronic cigarettes (EC) in the US, particularly among young people, and their perceived safety, current evidence suggests that EC usage may cause adverse clinical cardiovascular effects. Therefore, we aim to pool all studies evaluating the association of EC exposure with cardiovascular health. Medline, Cochrane CENTRAL, and Scopus were searched for studies from January 1, 2006 until December 31, 2022. Randomized and observational studies reporting cardiovascular outcomes, hemodynamic parameters and biomarkers of platelet physiology, before and after acute or chronic EC exposure were pooled using a random-effects model. Overall, 27 studies (n=863) were included. Heart rate increased significantly after acute EC exposure (weighted mean difference [WMD]: 0.76 bpm; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.48, 1.03; p<0.00001; I2=92%). Significant increases in systolic blood pressure (WMD: 0.28 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.06, 0.51; p=0.01; I2=94%), diastolic blood pressure (WMD: 0.38 mmHg; 95% CI, 0.16, 0.60; p=0.0006; I2=90%), and PWV (WMD: 0.38; 95% CI, 0.13, 0.63; p=0.003; I2=100%) were also observed. Augmentation index increased significantly (SMD: 0.39; 95% CI, 0.11, 0.67; p=0.007; I2=90%), whereas reduction in flow-mediated dilation (WMD: -1.48; 95% CI, -2.49, -0.47; p=0.004; I2=45%) was observed. Moreover, significant rise in both soluble P-selectin (WMD: 4.73; 95% CI, 0.80, 8.66; p=0.02; I2=98%) and CD40L (WMD: 1.14; 95% CI, 0.41, 1.87; p=0.002; I2=79%) was observed. Our results demonstrate that smoking EC is associated with a significant increase in cardiovascular hemodynamic measures and biomarkers. Our findings can aid policymakers in making informed decisions regarding the regulation of EC to ensure public safety.