Association of cumulative blood pressure with cardiovascular mortality in Chinese older people: A longitudinal prospective study
Objective: Long-term cumulative blood pressure (BP) was associated with cardiovascular mortality in middle-aged to older people. Whether cumulative BP was associated with cardiovascular mortality is uncertain in Chinese older people.
Design: Data were obtained from the Chinese Longitudinal Healthy Longevity Survey (CLHLS), a nationwide, ongoing, prospective cohort study of community-dwelling Chinese older people.
Setting, and participants: A total of 3361 older participants from the CLHLS study were included (men: 46.68 %, age: ≥65 years, median age: 78.00 years [IQR: 71.0-86.00 years]).
Methods: Cumulative BP, including systolic BP (SBP), diastolic BP (DBP) and pulse pressure (PP), was determined by the area under the curve based on three measurements of BP (waves 2008, 2011, and 2014). The outcome was cardiovascular mortality, which was followed from wave 2014 to wave 2018.
Results: During a median follow-up period of 3.98 years, 211 cardiovascular death were recorded. The higher cumulative SBP and PP tended to be positively linearly associated with an elevated risk of cardiovascular mortality. For each SD increment, the adjusted HRs of mortality risk was 1.28 (95 % CI: 1.11-1.47; p = 0.001) and 1.24 (95 % CI, 1.09-1.43; p = 0.002) for cumulative SBP and PP, respectively. While there was no association between cumulative DBP and cardiovascular mortality. In addition, multiple sensitivity analyses suggested robustness of the results.
Conclusions/implications: Our results indicate that cumulative SBP and PP were associated with cardiovascular mortality in Chinese older people; however, there was no such association between cumulative DBP and mortality. Therefore, control of long-term SBP and PP may be required in those people.